Among all the major citrus fruits produced in Pakistan including lemon, limes, oranges and grapefruit, Kinnow is one of the highly cultivated citrus plants in Pakistan. Despite the diversity and variety in the citrus fruits, the richness of nutrients is common among all but Kinnow, being the  hybrid plant of two citrus cultivators “king” and “willow leaf” , is  the cream of the crop in the citrus family.

Kinnow nutrition:

Each part of Kinnow (pulp, seeds, juice and peel) is a complete source of essential nutrients. Among all citrus fruits, Kinnow is a rich source of calcium and a good consumption on a daily basis, strengthens bones and boosts the immune system. The dietary fibers and minerals present in Kinnow help in digestion and relieve acidity, intestinal problems and constipation. The richness of vitamin C (20mg in 100 ml of fresh Kinnow juice) enhances metabolism and helps in attaining fresh and glowing skin. The antioxidants properties of Kinnow help to reduce the risk of cancer. 

What can be done with Kinnow?

With an endless list of Kinnow benefits and as a rich source of bioactive constituents, it is one of the most loved and the most consumed citrus fruits. To meet the increasing demands of citrus fruit consumption on a larger scale, Pakistan has to produce an excessive amount of Kinnow every year, as Kinnow production in Pakistan has reached up to 370 million tons in 2020, which is by far, the highest export volume of mandarin (Kinnow). But excessive cultivation results in excessive Kinnow waste production as well, including the peel, seeds and leftover pulp after juice extraction. To prevent food wastage on a broad scale, this Kinnow waste can be utilized in so many ways:

1.      Marmalade

Preserving the extra Kinnow in the form of marmalade is one way to utilize Kinnow in a productive manner. To prepare marmalade, Kinnow juice is boiled with its peels, sugar and water. Rich in the anti aging agent Vitamin C, the Kinnow juice helps combat wrinkles, whereas the Kinnow peel is abundant in health beneficial nutrients, including carotenoids, antioxidants, essential oils that prevent eye diseases and cancer. Also, dehydrated and dried Kinnow peels can be used for baking and cooking purposes.

2.      Fortification

To enhance and avail the nutritional benefits. of Kinnow , it can be dehydrated and reduced to be fortified in food and flour thus reducing peel waste to a certain degree. 

  3.     Dehydration

 The kinnow waste that otherwise goes to waste can be utilized by drying either by conventional or modern methods and preserved for later use. The dried fruit market is vast and possesses great potential owing to high shelf life and sustenance of the product. The product is not only nutritious but also easy to carry.

4.     Skin care products

Apart from regularly using Kinnow in our diets, its peel can be utilized in skin care products. Peel is an essential bi-product of the citrus fruit industry. Dried Kinnow peel can be used as herbal cosmetic products like face mask or body scrub to treat blackheads and attain glowing skin. Since, kinnow is packed with rich Vitamin C which also happens to be an essential nutrient for the health of the skin along with Vitamin E.

5.     Animal fodder

Since Kinnow peel and seed waste is not directly consumed like Kinnow juice or pulp, but it is still very useful as it can be used as livestock and poultry feed, because it contains a high amount of dietary fibers and minerals. Using Kinnow waste in such a way can reduce solid waste to a large extent.

The list of nutritional benefits is as long as that of the number of ways to reuse and reduce the excessive kinnow waste. These methods are rather productive in their usage of  waste in various products hence contributing significantly in reducing solid waste.

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